For at least a hundred years, immigration has played a decisive role in the Grand Duchy’s economic development. Currently, the country’s population features an extremely large proportion of foreigners: on 1 January 2017, 47.7% of the total population was not of Luxembourgish nationality.
The official languages are Luxembourgish, French and German, the last two because of the Grand Duchy’s intensive exchanges with its neighbours and its geographical position at the meeting point of two major linguistic areas – the German- and French-speaking areas of Europe. The language of communication among Luxembourgers is Luxembourgish; the main language of communication between Luxembourgers and people who speak other languages is French.
School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 4 and 16 years. It includes a minimum of twelve years, divided between primary school (école fondamentale) and secondary education. All children of compulsory school age must be enrolled at a school, whatever their parents’ status. No child may be refused, irrespective of his/her race, gender, native language, or religion.
The vast majority of children and teenagers attend public, i.e. State-run schools. Additionally, several private schools offer either the same type of education as public schools, or other variants in terms of language and/or teaching concept.